After serving the allied forces in winning WW1 and breaking the Nazi rule, the great mathematician Alan Turing made history by questioning, “Can a machine think”?
What is artificial intelligence?
Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that creates intelligent computer systems. AI research deals with the question of how to make computers that are capable of intelligent behaviour.
In practical terms, AI applications can be deployed in several ways, including:
- Machine learning: This method teaches computers to learn from data without being explicitly programmed.
- Natural language processing: This involves teaching computers to understand human language and respond in a way that is natural for humans.
- Robotics: This involves using robots to carry out tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible for humans.
- Predictive analytics: This method uses artificial intelligence to make predictions about future events, trends, and behaviours.
There is no single definition of artificial intelligence. However, a few common themes are often included in reports on AI.
- AI is concerned with the creation of intelligent computer systems.
- AI involves the study of how to create computers that are capable of intelligent behaviour.
- AI research deals with the question of how to create computers that are capable of intelligent behaviour.
- AI applications can be deployed in several ways, including machine learning, natural language processing, robotics, and predictive analytics.
The field of artificial intelligence has a long and rich history. The term “artificial intelligence” was first coined in 1955 by computer scientist John McCarthy, often referred to as the father of AI.
McCarthy defined AI as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.”
Since then, AI has undergone many iterations and undergone significant changes. Early AI research was heavily influenced by the work of Alan Turing, a British mathematician who is widely considered to be the father of computer science.
Turing’s work laid the foundation for the field of AI, and his ideas continue to be influential today. In 1950, Turing published a paper titled “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, in which he proposed a test for determining whether a machine could be said to be intelligent.
The test, now known as the Turing Test, is a test of a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour that is indistinguishable from that of a human.
Since the 1950s, AI research has been undertaken by both academics and commercial entities. Significant milestones in AI include:
- The creation of the first digital computer was in 1941.
- The first artificial neural network was in 1943.
- The first robot was in 1948.
- The first expert system was in 1965.
- The first commercial AI application was in 1966.
In recent years, AI has seen a resurgence of interest, thanks partly to advances in machine learning and artificial neural networks. Today, AI is used in various domains such as healthcare, finance, transportation, and manufacturing.
Types of artificial intelligence
The complexity of machines and AI working can be divided into four main types.
· Reactive machines
A reactive machine is a machine that responds to external stimuli. This can include things like light, sound, or even temperature changes. These machines are often used in manufacturing or industrial settings where it is essential to quickly and accurately respond to environmental changes.
One common type of reactive machine is a robotic arm. These arms are often used in assembly lines to quickly and accurately grab and move parts or products. They are also used in many other settings, such as hospitals and warehouses, where they can help with tasks such as moving and sorting items.
· Limited memory machines
A limited memory machine is a machine that can only store a limited amount of information. This type of machine is often used in classrooms or for training purposes.
One example of a limited memory machine is a computer with a small amount of RAM. This type of computer can only store a limited amount of information, meaning it can only run a limited number of programs.
· Theory of mind
The theory of mind machines posits that machines can be designed to replicate or simulate the workings of the human mind. This can be done through several means, such as programming machines to learn and make decisions like humans do or by building machines that are physically capable of replicating human brain functions. This theory aims to create devices that can think and act like humans, which can ultimately be used to augment or even replace human cognition.
One of the key benefits of creating mind machines is that they would be able to think and process information far faster than humans. They would also be able to store vast amounts of data and recall it instantly.
However, there are also several potential risks associated with mind machines. One worry is that if they become too powerful, they could ultimately threaten humanity. Another concern is that if they are not appropriately designed, they could end up replicating and amplifying the worst aspects of human cognition, such as our biases and prejudices.
Overall, the theory of mind machines is controversial, and it remains to be seen whether or not they will ever be realised. However, the prospect of creating machines that can think and act like humans is intriguing, and it is undoubtedly an area of research worth exploring.
Self-awareness machines are machines aware of their existence and can think, feel, and experience emotions like humans. Some examples of self-awareness machines are artificial intelligence (AI), robots, and cyborgs.
One example of a self-aware machine is the AI computer system known as SAM (Self-aware Manufacturing), developed by researchers at the University of Southern California. SAM is designed to be aware of its existence and to think, feel, and experience emotions like humans.
Another example of a self-aware machine is Bina48, a robot designed to be a copy of a real human being. Bina48 is aware of its existence and can think, feel, and experience human emotions.
Cyborgs are also self-aware machines. A cyborg is a human who has been surgically enhanced with artificial limbs or organs. Cyborgs are aware of their existence and can think, feel, and experience human emotions.
In conclusion, artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that deals with creating intelligent computer systems. AI research deals with the question of how to create computers that are capable of intelligent behaviour. In practical terms, AI applications can be deployed in several ways, including machine learning, natural language processing, robotics, and predictive analytics.